⌛ 1.1 Explain The Importance Of A Child-Centred Approach To A Play Environment
Five vows vrata or absciences to indicate general character. Cognitive development. Check your progress — 1 : 1. What exactly made them feel uncomfortable and why? Piaget 1.1 Explain The Importance Of A Child-Centred Approach To A Play Environment himself as 1.1 Explain The Importance Of A Child-Centred Approach To A Play Environment 'genetic' epistemologistinterested in the process of Essay On Didactic Method Of Teaching qualitative development of knowledge.
Virtual SEN Conference. A Child Centred Approach
Observation, Assessment and planning Unit 7 2. Can you say the names of the colours written in the Stroop test? What can you see in the other pictures? Definition Think pair share to define: What is observation? What is assessment? Skills for observation What do you think you will need to consider before and while you are observing? Why are observations completed? Complete your Hand- out to support D1 C2 Describe three reasons for carrying out an observation. Explain why is observation, assessment and planning are described as a cycle.
Give a detailed description of each element of the cycle: — Observation — Assessment — Planning. Assignment Task Observation, Assessment and planning Unit 7 Gaining Permission Confidentiality C1 Why do we need to be objective when observing children? Complete your grid The hand written and typed notes can then be kept together if necessary but the typed version will be easier to share. Move around the room and write your thoughts as to what would need to be considered under each heading and why.
Write up 2 observations of the same child and situation, and use no more than words in each. List three reasons for accurate record keeping. Describe two examples of when it may be difficult to read records. What is the importance of being objective when observing children? What ways can we be confidential when observing and why is this important? Media Snap shots It looks like a story. Prepare to complete a written narrative. What can be assessed? Observation methods You will choose various methods to observe children so you are able to collate as much information as possible.
This would form a longitudinal study over a period of time. Child centred planning Work in partnership Additional needs would be supported Child will progress and develop Inclusive environment Child will be engaged Example of observe, assess and plan Thomas, aged 20 months, brought a toy digger to show his key person. He laughed when it banged down, and repeated the action several times. Other staff in the room, shared observations of Thomas painting on paper attached to a door, with large up and down movements, and using the gloop by raising his hands high and watching the mixture fall.
The staff thought that Thomas was showing particular interest in exploring vertical movements, and decided to plan further opportunities for him to explore up-and-down movements through building tall towers of boxes which could be knocked down, and through jumping off soft play shapes onto a mat. Evaluation of the observation, assessment cycle Evaluate the benefits of a longitudinal study. Tracking progress. How did this support the child? This is paramount. Thank you for your quick response. Greater than anticipated. Thanks for the start. Customer Topic: Networking building blocks and their functions, software applications' vulnerabilities. Subject: Cyber Warfare August 8th, Customer Topic: different modes of rail personnel transportation Subject: fundamentals of intermodal transportation March 30th, View more reviews.
We're Obsessed with Your Privacy. At GradeMiners, you can communicate directly with your writer on a no-name basis. New to Coursework Hero? Calculate the price of your order Type of paper needed:. You will get a personal manager and a discount. Academic level:. We'll send you the first draft for approval by at. Total price:. How many cases in a day can a worker effectively handle? What are the most common needs of clients who come to this agency? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the service? How satisfied are the clients with the service? How can I improve this service for my clients? As a professional you might be interested in finding answers to theoretical questions, such as: Which is the most effective intervention for a particular problem?
What causes X or what are the effects of Y? What is the relationship between two phenomena? How do I measure the self-esteem of my clients? How do I ascertain the validity of my questionnaire? What is the pattern of programme adoption in the community? Which is the best way of finding out community attitudes towards an issue? Which is the best way to find out the effectiveness of a particular treatment? How can I select an unbiased sample? What is the best way to find out about the level of marriage satisfaction among my clients? In this age of consumerism you cannot afford to ignore the consumers of a service. Consumers have the right to ask questions about the quality and effectiveness of the service they are receiving and you, as the service provider, have an obligation to answer their questions.
Some of the questions that a consumer may ask are: How effective is the service that I am receiving? Am I getting value for money? How well trained are the service providers? Most professions that are in the human service industry would lend themselves to the questions raised above and you as a service provider should be well prepared to answer them. Research is one of the ways to help you answer such questions objectively. EBP is fast becoming a service delivery norm among many professions. It is now being promoted as an acceptable and scientific method for policy formulation and practice assessment. The concept of EBP encourages professionals and other decision-makers to use evidence regarding the effectiveness of an intervention in conjunction with the characteristics and circumstance of a client and their own professional judgement to determine the appropriateness of an intervention when providing a service to a client.
In this age of accountability, you as a professional must be accountable to your clients as well as your profession. It is as a part of this accountability that you need to demonstrate the effectiveness of the service s you provide. Research is one of the ways of collecting accurate, sound and reliable information about the effectiveness of your interventions, thereby providing you with evidence of its effectiveness. As service providers and professionals, we use techniques and procedures developed by research methodologists to consolidate, improve, develop, refine and advance clinical aspects of our practice to serve our clients better.
Applications of research Very little research in the field is pure in nature. That is, very few people do research in research methodology per se. Most research is applied research, which has wide application in many disciplines. Every profession uses research methods in varying amounts in many areas. They use the methods and procedures developed by research methodologists in order to increase understanding in their own profession and to advance the professional knowledge base. It is through the application of research methodology that they strengthen and advance their own profession. Examine your own field. You will find that its professional practice follows procedures and practices tested and developed by others over a long period of time.
It is in this testing process that you need research skills, the developments of which fall in the category of pure research. As a matter of fact, the validity of your findings entirely depends upon the soundness of the research methods and procedures adopted by you. Within any profession, where you directly or indirectly provide a service, such as health nursing, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, community health, health promotion and public health , education, psychology or social work, the application of research can be viewed from four different perspectives: 1.
These perspectives are summarised in Figure 1. Though it is impossible to list all the issues in every discipline, this framework can be applied to most disciplines and situations in the humanities and the social sciences. You should be able to use this to identify, from the viewpoint of the above perspectives, the possible issues in your own academic field where research techniques can be used to find answers. Research: what does it mean? There are several ways of obtaining answers to your professional questions. Research is one of the ways to find answers to your questions. When you say that you are undertaking a research study to find out answers to a question, you are implying that the process being applied: 1.
Your philosophical orientation may stem from one of the several paradigms and approaches in research — positivist, interpretive, phenomenology, action or participatory, feminist, qualitative, quantitative — and the academic discipline in which you have been trained. It ensures that in a research study correct procedures have been applied to find answers to a question. The author makes a distinction between bias and subjectivity. For example, a psychologist may look at a piece of information differently from the way in which an anthropologist or a historian looks at it.
Bias, on the other hand, is a deliberate attempt to either conceal or highlight something. Therefore, when you say you are undertaking a research study to find the answer to a question, this implies that the method s you are adopting fulfils these expectations discussed later in the chapter. For example, the expectations of the research process are markedly different between the physical and the social sciences. In the physical sciences a research endeavour is expected to be strictly controlled at each step, whereas in the social sciences rigid control cannot be enforced and sometimes is not even demanded. Within the social sciences the level of control required also varies markedly from one discipline to another, as social scientists differ over the need for the research process to meet the above expectations.
Despite these differences among disciplines, their broad approach to enquiry is similar. The research model, the basis of this book, is based upon this broad approach. As beginners in research you should understand that research is not all technical, complex, statistics and computers. It can be a very simple activity designed to provide answers to very simple questions relating to day-to-day activities.
On the other hand, research procedures can also be employed to formulate intricate theories or laws that govern our lives. The difference between research and non- research activity is, as mentioned, in the way we find answers to our research questions. For a process to be called research, it is important that it meets certain requirements and possesses certain characteristics.
To identify these requirements and characteristics let us examine some definitions of research: The word research is composed of two syllables, re and search. Together they form a noun describing a careful, systematic, patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge, undertaken to establish facts or principles. According to him: Scientific methods consist of systematic observation, classification and interpretation of data.
Now, obviously, this process is one in which nearly all people engage in the course of their daily lives. The main difference between our day-to-day generalisations and the conclusions usually recognised as scientific method lies in the degree of formality, rigorousness, verifiability and general validity of the latter. But to qualify as research, the process must have certain characteristics: it must, as far as possible, be controlled, rigorous, systematic, valid and verifiable, empirical and critical. Let us briefly examine these characteristics to understand what they mean: Controlled — In real life there are many factors that affect an outcome. A particular event is seldom the result of a one-to-one relationship. Some relationships are more complex than others.
Most outcomes are a sequel to the interplay of a multiplicity of relationships and interacting factors. In a study of cause-and-effect relationships it is important to be able to link the effect s with the cause s and vice versa. In the study of causation, the establishment of this linkage is essential; however, in practice, particularly in the social sciences, it is extremely difficult — and often impossible — to make the link. The concept of control implies that, in exploring causality in relation to two variables, you set up your study in a way that minimises the effects of other factors affecting the relationship. This can be achieved to a large extent in the physical sciences, as most of the research is done in a laboratory.
However, in the social sciences it is extremely difficult as research is carried out on issues relating to human beings living in society, where such controls are impossible. Therefore, in the social sciences, as you cannot control external factors, you attempt to quantify their impact. Rigorous — You must be scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed to find answers to questions are relevant, appropriate and justified. Again, the degree of rigour varies markedly between the physical and the social sciences and within the social sciences. Systematic — This implies that the procedures adopted to undertake an investigation follow a certain logical sequence.
The different steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way. Some procedures must follow others. Valid and verifiable — This concept implies that whatever you conclude on the basis of your findings is correct and can be verified by you and others. Empirical — This means that any conclusions drawn are based upon hard evidence gathered from information collected from real-life experiences or observations. Critical — Critical scrutiny of the procedures used and the methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The process of investigation must be foolproof and free from any drawbacks. The process adopted and the procedures used must be able to withstand critical scrutiny. For a process to be called research, it is imperative that it has the above characteristics.
For example, a research project may be classified as pure or applied research from the perspective of application , as descriptive, correlational, explanatory or exploratory from the perspective of objectives and as qualitative or quantitative from the perspective of the enquiry mode employed. Types of research: application perspective If you examine a research endeavour from the perspective of its application, there are two broad categories: pure research and applied research. In the social sciences, according to Bailey 17 : Pure research involves developing and testing theories and hypotheses that are intellectually challenging to the researcher but may or may not have practical application at the present time or in the future.
Thus such work often involves the testing of hypotheses containing very abstract and specialised concepts. Pure research is also concerned with the development, examination, verification and refinement of research methods, procedures, techniques and tools that form the body of research methodology. The knowledge produced through pure research is sought in order to add to the existing body of knowledge of research methods. Most of the research in the social sciences is applied. In other words, the research techniques, procedures and methods that form the body of research methodology are applied to the collection of information about various aspects of a situation, issue, problem or phenomenon so that the information gathered can be used in other ways — such as for policy formulation, administration and the enhancement of understanding of a phenomenon.
Types of research: objectives perspective If you examine a research study from the perspective of its objectives, broadly a research endeavour can be classified as descriptive, correlational, explanatory or exploratory. A research study classified as a descriptive study attempts to describe systematically a situation, problem, phenomenon, service or programme, or provides information about, say, the living conditions of a community, or describes attitudes towards an issue. For example, it may attempt to describe the types of service provided by an organisation, the administrative structure of an organisation, the living conditions of Aboriginal people in the outback, the needs of a community, what it means to go through a divorce, how a child feels living in a house with domestic violence, or the attitudes of employees towards management.
What is the impact of an advertising campaign on the sale of a product? What is the relationship between stressful living and the incidence of heart attack? What is the relationship between fertility and mortality? What is the relationship between technology and unemployment? What is the effect of a health service on the control of a disease, or the home environment on educational achievement? These studies examine whether there is a relationship between two or more aspects of a situation or phenomenon and, therefore, are called correlational studies.
Explanatory research attempts to clarify why and how there is a relationship between two aspects of a situation or phenomenon. The fourth type of research, from the viewpoint of the objectives of a study, is called exploratory research. This is when a study is undertaken with the objective either to explore an area where little is known or to investigate the possibilities of undertaking a particular research study. When a study is carried out to determine its feasibility it is also called a feasibility study or a pilot study. A small-scale study is undertaken to decide if it is worth carrying out a detailed investigation.
On the basis of the assessment made during the exploratory study, a full study may eventuate. Table 1. Although, theoretically, a research study can be classified in one of the above objectives—perspective categories, in practice, most studies are a combination of the first three; that is, they contain elements of descriptive, correlational and explanatory research. In this book the guidelines suggested for writing a research report encourage you to integrate these aspects.
Types of research: mode of enquiry perspective The third perspective in our typology of research concerns the process you adopt to find answers to your research questions. Broadly, there are two approaches to enquiry: 1. In the structured approach everything that forms the research process — objectives, design, sample, and the questions that you plan to ask of respondents — is predetermined. The unstructured approach, by contrast, allows flexibility in all these aspects of the process. For example, if you want to research the different perspectives of an issue, the problems experienced by people living in a community or the different views people hold towards an issue, then these are better explored using unstructured enquiries.
On the other hand, to find out how many people have a particular perspective, how many people have a particular problem, or how many people hold a particular view, you need to have a structured approach to enquiry. Both approaches have their place in research. Both have their strengths and weaknesses. TABLE 1. Other distinctions between quantitative and qualitative research are outlined in Table 2.
The choice between quantitative and qualitative approaches or structured or unstructured should depend upon: Aim of your enquiry — exploration, confirmation or quantification. Use of the findings — policy formulation or process understanding. A study is classified as qualitative if the purpose of the study is primarily to describe a situation, phenomenon, problem or event; if the information is gathered through the use of variables measured on nominal or ordinal scales qualitative measurement scales ; and if the analysis is done to establish the variation in the situation, phenomenon or problem without quantifying it. The description of an observed situation, the historical enumeration of events, an account of the different opinions people have about an issue, and a description of the living conditions of a community are examples of qualitative research.
Examples of quantitative aspects of a research study are: How many people have a particular problem? How many people hold a particular attitude? The use of statistics is not an integral part of a quantitative study. The main function of statistics is to act as a test to confirm or contradict the conclusions that you have drawn on the basis of your understanding of analysed data. Statistics, among other things, help you to quantify the magnitude of an association or relationship, provide an indication of the confidence you can place in your findings and help you to isolate the effect of different variables.
It is true that there are disciplines that lend themselves predominantly either to qualitative or to quantitative research. For example, such disciplines as anthropology, history and sociology are more inclined towards qualitative research, whereas psychology, epidemiology, education, economics, public health and marketing are more inclined towards quantitative research. However, this does not mean that an economist or a psychologist never uses the qualitative approach, or that an anthropologist never uses quantitative information. There is increasing recognition by most disciplines in the social sciences that both types of research are important for a good research study.
The research problem itself should determine whether the study is carried out using quantitative or qualitative methodologies. The measurement and analysis of the variables about which information is obtained in a research study are dependent upon the purpose of the study. In many studies you need to combine both qualitative and quantitative approaches.
For example, suppose you want to find out the types of service available to victims of domestic violence in a city and the extent of their utilisation. Types of service is the qualitative aspect of the study as finding out about them entails description of the services. The extent of utilisation of the services is the quantitative aspect as it involves estimating the number of people who use the services and calculating other indicators that reflect the extent of utilisation. Paradigms of research There are two main paradigms that form the basis of research in the social sciences. It is beyond the scope of this book to go into any detail about these.
The crucial question that divides the two is whether the methodology of the physical sciences can be applied to the study of social phenomena. The paradigm that is rooted in the physical sciences is called the systematic, scientific or positivist approach. The opposite paradigm has come to be known as the qualitative, ethnographic, ecological or naturalistic approach. The advocates of the two opposing sides have developed their own values, terminology, methods and techniques to understand social phenomena.
However, since the mids there has been a growing recognition that both paradigms have their place. It is the purpose for which a research activity is undertaken that should determine the mode of enquiry, hence the paradigm. To indiscriminately apply one approach to all the research problems can be misleading and inappropriate. A positivist paradigm lends itself to both quantitative and qualitative research. However, the author makes a distinction between qualitative data on the one hand and qualitative research on the other as the first is confined to the measurement of variables and the second to a use of methodology.
Summary There are several ways of collecting and understanding information and finding answers to your questions — research is one way. The difference between research and other ways of obtaining answers to your questions is that in a process that is classified as research, you work within a framework of a set of philosophies, use methods that have been tested for validity and reliability, and attempt to be unbiased and objective. Research has many applications. As a professional who has a responsibility to enhance professional knowledge, research skills are essential. The typology of research can be looked at from three perspectives: application, objectives and the enquiry process. From the point of view of the application of research, there is applied and pure research.
Pure research is academic in nature and is undertaken in order to gain knowledge about phenomena that may or may not have applications in the near future, and to develop new techniques and procedures that form the body of research methodology. A research study can be carried out with four objectives: to describe a situation, phenomenon, problem or issue descriptive research ; to establish or explore a relationship between two or more variables correlational research ; to explain why certain things happen the way they do explanatory research ; and to examine the feasibility of conducting a study or exploring a subject area where nothing or little is known exploratory research.
From the point of view of the mode of enquiry, there are two types of research: quantitative structured approach and qualitative unstructured approach. The main objective of a qualitative study is to describe the variation and diversity in a phenomenon, situation or attitude with a very flexible approach so as to identify as much variation and diversity as possible, whereas quantitative research, in addition, helps you to quantify the variation and diversity. There are many who strongly advocate a combined approach to social enquiries. These are the two paradigms that form the basis of social science research.
Though these may provide values, terminology, methods and techniques for you to apply to your research, it is the purpose of research rather than the paradigm that should determine the mode of enquiry. For You to Think About Refamiliarise yourself with the keywords listed at the beginning of this chapter and if you are uncertain about the meaning or application of any of them revisit these in the chapter before moving on. Consider how you would go about convincing a service provider that evidence-based research might benefit them.
Identify two or three research questions, related to your own academic field or professional area, that could be answered by undertaking each of the following types of research: descriptive research; correlational research; explanatory research; exploratory research. Consider how both unstructured and structured approaches to research could be applied to improve practice in your own professional area. Critically examine your own research philosophy in relation to the two research paradigms. Therefore, the model developed here is generic in nature and can be applied to a number of disciplines in the social sciences. It is based upon a practical and step-by-step approach to a research enquiry and each step provides a smorgasbord of methods, models and procedures.
Suppose you want to go out for a drive. Before you start, you must decide where you want to go and then which route to take. If you know the route, you do not need to consult a street directory, but, if you do not know the route, then you need to use one. Your problem is compounded if there is more than one route. You need to decide which one to take. The research process is very similar to undertaking a journey. As with your drive, for a research journey there are also two important decisions to make. The first is to decide what you want to find out about or, in other words, what research questions you want to find answers to.
Having decided upon your research questions or research problems, you then need to decide how to go about finding their answers. The path to finding answers to your research questions constitutes research methodology. Just as there are posts along the way as you travel to your destination, so there are practical steps through which you must pass in your research journey in order to find the answers to your research questions Figure 2. The sequence of these steps is not fixed and with experience you can change it. At each operational step in the research process you are required to choose from a multiplicity of methods, procedures and models of research methodology which will help you best achieve your research objectives.
This is where your knowledge base of research methodology plays a crucial role. The aim of this book is to provide you with knowledge that will enable you to select the most appropriate methods and procedures. The strength of this book lies in anchoring the theoretical knowledge of the steps that you need to go through on your research journey.
Quantitative and qualitative research methodologies differ both in their underpinning philosophy and, to some extent, in the methods, models and procedures used. Though the research process is broadly the same in both, quantitative and qualitative research are differentiated in terms of the methods of data collection, the procedures adopted for data processing and analysis, and the style of communication of the findings.
For example, if your research problem lends itself to a qualitative mode of enquiry, you are more likely to use the unstructured interview or observation as your method of data collection. When analysing data in qualitative research, you go through the process of identifying themes and describing what you have found out during your interviews or observation rather than subjecting your data to statistical procedures. Table 2. Also note that this book is for beginners, it does not cover extensively the applicability and use of each method, model and procedure.
In addition, the author has elaborated more on methods, models and procedures associated with quantitative research as compared with those linked with qualitative research. For a deeper understanding of a method or procedure relating to either, you may wish to consult other books identified in the text or in the Bibliography. TABLE 2. The tasks identified in arrows are the operational steps you need to follow in order to conduct a study, quantitative or qualitative. Topics identified in rectangles are the required theoretical knowledge needed to carry out these steps. The tasks identified in circles are the intermediary steps that you need to complete to go from one step to another.
It is important for a beginner to work through these steps in the proposed sequence, though, as already stated, with experience you do not need to follow the sequence. In this book the theoretical knowledge required is written around each operational step and follows the same sequential progression as is needed when actually undertaking a research investigation. Again, for a beginner, it is important to study this diagram to relate the theoretical knowledge to the operational steps.
Phase I: deciding what to research Step I: formulating a research problem Formulating a research problem is the first and most important step in the research process. A research problem identifies your destination: it should tell you, your research supervisor and your readers what you intend to research. The more specific and clearer you are the better, as everything that follows in the research process — study design, measurement procedures, sampling strategy, frame of analysis and the style of writing of your dissertation or report — is greatly influenced by the way in which you formulate your research problem. Hence, you should examine it thoroughly, carefully and critically. The main function of formulating a research problem is to decide what you want to find out about.
Chapter 4 deals in detail with various aspects of formulating a research problem. It is equally important to identify any gaps in your knowledge of relevant disciplines, such as statistics required for analysis. Also, ask yourself whether you have sufficient knowledge about computers and software if you plan to use them. Phase II: planning a research study Step II: conceptualising a research design An extremely important feature of research is the use of appropriate methods. Research involves systematic, controlled, valid and rigorous exploration and description of what is not known and establishment of associations and causation that permit the accurate prediction of outcomes under a given set of conditions.
It also involves identifying gaps in knowledge, verification of what is already known and identification of past errors and limitations. The strength of what you find largely rests on how it was found. The main function of a research design is to explain how you will find answers to your research questions. The research design sets out the specific details of your enquiry. A research design should include the following: the study design per se and the logistical arrangements that you propose to undertake, the measurement procedures, the sampling strategy, the frame of analysis and the time- frame.
You should not be confused between study design and research design. Note that the study design is one part of the research design. It is the design of the study itself, whereas the research design also includes other parts which constitute the research process. For any investigation, the selection of an appropriate research design is crucial in enabling you to arrive at valid findings, comparisons and conclusions. A faulty design results in misleading findings and is therefore tantamount to wasting human and financial resources. In scientific circles, the strength of an empirical investigation is primarily evaluated in the light of the research design adopted.
When selecting a research design it is important to ensure that it is valid, workable and manageable. Chapter 7 provides details about the research design most commonly used in quantitative and qualitative research. There is an enormous variety of study designs and you need to be acquainted with some of the most common ones. Chapter 8 explains some of these designs.
Select or develop the design that is most suited to your study. You must have strong reasons for selecting a particular design; you must be able to justify your selection; and you should be aware of its strengths, weaknesses and limitations. In addition, you will need to explain the logistical details needed to implement the suggested design. You will need to decide how you are going to collect data for the proposed study and then construct a research instrument for data collection. Chapter 9 details the various methods of data collection for qualitative and quantitative studies and the process of developing a research instrument.
If you are planning to collect data specifically for your study primary data , you need either to construct a research instrument or to select one that has already been constructed. The concepts of validity and reliability in relation to a research instrument are discussed in Chapter If you are using secondary data information already collected for other purposes , you will need to identify what information is needed and then develop a form to extract the required data. In order to determine what information is required, you need to go through the same process as for primary data, described above. Field testing or pre-testing a research tool is an integral part of instrument construction.
As a rule, the pre-test of a research instrument should not be carried out on the sample of your study population but on a similar population which you are not proposing to study. This is covered in greater detail in Chapter 9. If you are planning to use a computer for data analysis, you may wish to provide space for coding the data on the research instrument. This is explained in Chapter Step IV: selecting a sample The accuracy of your findings largely depends upon the way you select your sample. The basic objective of any sampling design is to minimise, within the limitation of cost, the gap between the values obtained from your sample and those prevalent in the study population.
The underlying premise in sampling is that a relatively small number of units, if selected in a manner that they genuinely represent the study population, can provide — with a sufficiently high degree of probability — a fairly true reflection of the sampling population that is being studied. When selecting a sample you should attempt to achieve two key aims of sampling the avoidance of bias in the selection of a sample; and the attainment of maximum precision for a given outlay of resources. There are several sampling strategies within the first two categories.
You need to be acquainted with these sampling designs — the strengths and weaknesses of each and the situations in which they can or cannot be applied — in order to select the one most appropriate for your study. The type of sampling strategy you use will influence your ability to make generalisations from the sample findings about the study population, and the type of statistical tests you can apply to the data. Step V: writing a research proposal Having done all the preparatory work, the next step is to put everything together in a way that provides adequate information about your research study, for your research supervisor and others. This overall plan, called a research proposal, tells a reader about your research problem and how you are planning to investigate.
In doing so it ensures — and reassures the readers of — the validity of the methodology to obtain answers accurately and objectively. Universities and other institutions may have differing requirements regarding the style and content of a research proposal, but the majority of institutions would require most of what is set out here. Requirements may also vary within an institution, from discipline to discipline or from supervisor to supervisor.
However, the guidelines set out in Chapter 13 provide a framework which will be acceptable to most. Phase III: conducting a research study Step VI: collecting data Having formulated a research problem, developed a study design, constructed a research instrument and selected a sample, you then collect the data from which you will draw inferences and conclusions for your study. Many methods could be used to gather the required information. As a part of the research design, you decided upon the procedure you wanted to adopt to collect your data.
In this phase you actually collect the data. Collecting data through any one of the methods may involve some ethical issues, which are discussed in Chapter Step VII: processing and displaying data The way you analyse the information you collected largely depends upon two things: the type of information descriptive, quantitative, qualitative or attitudinal ; and the way you want to communicate your findings to your readers. Chapter 15 describes different ways of analysing quantitative and qualitative data and Chapter 16 details various methods of displaying analysed data.
In addition to the qualitative—quantitative distinction, it is important for data analysis that you consider whether the data is to be analysed manually or by a computer. If you want quantitative analysis, it is also necessary to decide upon the type of analysis required i. You will also need to identify the variables to be subjected to these statistical procedures. Step VIII: writing a research report There are two broad categories of reports: quantitative and qualitative.
As mentioned earlier, the distinction is more academic than real as in most studies you need to combine quantitative and qualitative skills. Nevertheless, there are some solely qualitative and some solely quantitative studies. Writing the report is the last and, for many, the most difficult step of the research process. This report informs the world what you have done, what you have discovered and what conclusions you have drawn from your findings. If you are clear about the whole process, you will also be clear about the way you want to write your report. Chapter 17 suggests some of the ways of writing a research report.Here you can download a copy for yourself. Developing operational definitions for the concepts that you propose to 1.1 Explain The Importance Of A Child-Centred Approach To A Play Environment is extremely important. These ideas are often accepted even among political groups that tesco ethical policy not openly profess a liberal ideological orientation.